Gender stereotypes in music: Current research findings
- Men engaged in significantly more aggresive and dominant behaviour.
- Men represented as independent, adventerous, unemotional and competent.
- Stereotypical gendered occupations apparent (i.e. Males as fire fighters/mechanics, women as cheerladers/Waitress).
- women engaged in significantly more explicit, sexual and passive behaviour.
- women represented as objects of sexual advances or as sexual objects
- Sex role stereotyping and negative attitudes towards females
- Women more likely to be presented in provocative or revealing clothing.
- Women portrayed as decorative objects that dance, pose and do not play instruments
- research findings NOT restricted to the Hip Hop genre.
Feminism ( 1960/70's)
- A movement in which women questioned their position within patriachal society and the "private sphere" of "home/children/domestic bliss".
- Serves to uncover, challenge and eliminate oppresion and dominant gender imagery
- women began to debate the narrow range of stereotypes present across all media;
- Women as virgins, mothers or promiscous
- Women as sex objects
- women are inferior to men
- Women as domestic/based in the home.
Sexual objectification and the Male Gaze (laura Mulvey 1975)
- definition of voyeurism: Erotic pleasures gained from looking at a sexual object (who is unaware of being watched)
- Presence of women solely for the purpose of display (rather than narrative function)
- female on display is passive and objectified for a male gaze regardless of viewers gender
- Voyeuristic treatment of female body in 'male' videos- use of dancers as adornments to the male ego
- the inclusion of women fr display is a staple element in music video's - across all genres
- Women connote to-be-looked-at-ness and are the object of the male gaze
Stereotypically 'female' occupations
- britney adheres to traditional gender stereotypes by taing on the roles of:
- secretary, Air hostess, waitress
- Each occupation emphasises highly sexualised costume and behavoiurs
Post-feminism and the female gaze (post-feminism (1980's))
- A re-appraisal of feminist values
- does not strive for 'equality' as this assumes men are the best - they wish to surpass male achievements
- Objected to theories which position them as objects of the 'male gaze'
- identifies a 'female gaze' - women actively desiring men
- Women began to assert their right to dress and be sexually attractive
- Rihanna is not on show for the benifit of male audiences but is enjoying herself experiencing different identities.
- She is successful, independent and in control.
- connotes messages of empowerment/confidence/independence to female audience.