Wednesday, 25 August 2010

further research

Gender stereotypes in music: Current research findings

  • Men engaged in significantly more aggresive and dominant behaviour.

  • Men represented as independent, adventerous, unemotional and competent.

  • Stereotypical gendered occupations apparent (i.e. Males as fire fighters/mechanics, women as cheerladers/Waitress).

  • women engaged in significantly more explicit, sexual and passive behaviour.

  • women represented as objects of sexual advances or as sexual objects

  • Sex role stereotyping and negative attitudes towards females

  • Women more likely to be presented in provocative or revealing clothing.

  • Women portrayed as decorative objects that dance, pose and do not play instruments

  • research findings NOT restricted to the Hip Hop genre.

Feminism ( 1960/70's)

  • A movement in which women questioned their position within patriachal society and the "private sphere" of "home/children/domestic bliss".

  • Serves to uncover, challenge and eliminate oppresion and dominant gender imagery

  • women began to debate the narrow range of stereotypes present across all media;

  • Women as virgins, mothers or promiscous

  • Women as sex objects

  • women are inferior to men

  • Women as domestic/based in the home.

Sexual objectification and the Male Gaze (laura Mulvey 1975)

  • definition of voyeurism: Erotic pleasures gained from looking at a sexual object (who is unaware of being watched)

  • Presence of women solely for the purpose of display (rather than narrative function)

  • female on display is passive and objectified for a male gaze regardless of viewers gender

  • Voyeuristic treatment of female body in 'male' videos- use of dancers as adornments to the male ego

  • the inclusion of women fr display is a staple element in music video's - across all genres

  • Women connote to-be-looked-at-ness and are the object of the male gaze

Stereotypically 'female' occupations

  • britney adheres to traditional gender stereotypes by taing on the roles of:

  • secretary, Air hostess, waitress

  • Each occupation emphasises highly sexualised costume and behavoiurs

Post-feminism and the female gaze (post-feminism (1980's))

  • A re-appraisal of feminist values

  • does not strive for 'equality' as this assumes men are the best - they wish to surpass male achievements

  • Objected to theories which position them as objects of the 'male gaze'

  • identifies a 'female gaze' - women actively desiring men

  • Women began to assert their right to dress and be sexually attractive

Post-feminist readings

  • Rihanna is not on show for the benifit of male audiences but is enjoying herself experiencing different identities.

  • She is successful, independent and in control.

  • connotes messages of empowerment/confidence/independence to female audience.

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